Introduction ::MexicoBackground:The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved its independence early in the 19th century. The global financial crisis beginning in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. The elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but the PRI regained the presidency in 2012. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.Geography ::MexicoLocation:North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United StatesGeographic coordinates:23 00 N, 102 00 WArea:total: 1,964,375 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 14land: 1,943,945 sq kmwater: 20,430 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly less than three times the size of TexasLand boundaries:total: 4,353 kmborder countries: Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,141 kmCoastline:9,330 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmcontinental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental marginClimate:varies from tropical to desertTerrain:high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desertElevation extremes:lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 mhighest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 mNatural resources:petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timberLand use:arable land: 12.98%permanent crops: 1.36%other: 85.66% (2011)Irrigated land:64,600 sq km (2009)Total renewable water resources:457.2 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 80.4 cu km/yr (14%/9%/77%)per capita: 700.4 cu m/yr (2009)Natural hazards:tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coastsvolcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (elev. 3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a ""Decade Volcano"" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (elev. 5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and TacanaEnvironment - current issues:scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletionnote: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issuesEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in MexicoPeople and Society ::MexicoNationality:noun: Mexican(s)adjective: MexicanEthnic groups:mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%Languages:Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%note: indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)Religions:Roman Catholic 82.7%, Protestant 1.6%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2000 census)Population:116,220,947 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 11Age structure:0-14 years: 27.4% (male 16,268,424/female 15,587,324)15-24 years: 18.1% (male 10,566,890/female 10,421,798)25-54 years: 40.7% (male 22,647,828/female 24,677,965)55-64 years: 6.9% (male 3,703,316/female 4,337,956)65 years and over: 6.9% (male 3,574,207/female 4,435,239) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 53.6 %youth dependency ratio: 43.7 %elderly dependency ratio: 9.8 %potential support ratio: 10.2 (2013)Median age:total: 27.7 yearsmale: 26.6 yearsfemale: 28.8 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.07% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 109Birth rate:18.61 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 104Death rate:4.94 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 188Net migration rate:-2.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 177Urbanization:urban population: 78% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 1.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)note: Mexico City is the second-largest urban agglomeration in the Western Hemisphere, after Sao Paulo (Brazil), but before New York-Newark (US)Major urban areas - population:MEXICO CITY (capital) 19.319 million; Guadalajara 4.338 million; Monterrey 3.838 million; Puebla 2.278 million; Tijuana 1.629 million (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:21.3note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2006 est.)Maternal mortality rate:50 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 109Infant mortality rate:total: 16.26 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 103male: 18.04 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 14.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.86 yearscountry comparison to the world: 72male: 74.03 yearsfemale: 79.83 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:2.25 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 99Contraceptive prevalence rate:70.9% (2006)Health expenditures:6.3% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 99Physicians density:2.89 physicians/1,000 population (2004)Hospital bed density:1.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 97% of populationrural: 91% of populationtotal: 96% of populationunimproved:urban: 3% of populationrural: 9% of populationtotal: 4% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 87% of populationrural: 79% of populationtotal: 85% of populationunimproved:urban: 13% of populationrural: 21% of populationtotal: 15% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.3% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 88HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:220,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 25HIV/AIDS - deaths:NAMajor infectious diseases:degree of risk: intermediatefood or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis Avectorborne disease: dengue fever (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:32.1% (2008)country comparison to the world: 23Children under the age of 5 years underweight:3.4% (2006)country comparison to the world: 103Education expenditures:5.3% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 63Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 93.5%male: 94.8%female: 92.3% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 yearsmale: 14 yearsfemale: 14 years (2011)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 1,105,617percentage: 5 % (2009 est.)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 9.8%country comparison to the world: 107male: 9.5%female: 10.4% (2011)Government ::MexicoCountry name:conventional long form: United Mexican Statesconventional short form: Mexicolocal long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanoslocal short form: MexicoGovernment type:federal republicCapital:name: Mexico City (Distrito Federal)geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 Wtime difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in Octobernote: Mexico is divided into three time zonesAdministrative divisions:31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Veracruz), Yucatan, ZacatecasIndependence:16 September 1810 (declared); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)National holiday:Independence Day, 16 September (1810)Constitution:5 February 1917Legal system:civil law system with US constitutional law theory influence; judicial review of legislative actsInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)Executive branch:chief of state: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of governmenthead of government: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012)cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held July 2018)election results: Enrique PENA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PENA NIETO (PRI) 38.21%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.59%, Josefina Eugenia VAZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.41%, other 4.79%Legislative branch:bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and 32 seats allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are elected by popular vote; remaining 200 members are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote; members to serve three-year terms)elections: Senate - last held on 1 July 2012 for all of the seats (next to be held on 1 July 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held on 5 July 2015)election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 52, PAN 38, PRD 22, PVEM 9, PT 4, Movimiento Ciudadano 2, PANAL 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 208, PAN 114, PRD 100, PVEM 33, PT 19, Movimiento Ciudadano 16, PANAL 10Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of 21 ministers or judges and 5 supernumerary judges)judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and approved by the Senate; judges serve for lifesubordinate courts: federal level includes Electoral Tribunal, circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state level and district level courtsPolitical parties and leaders:Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) [Luis WALTON Aburto]Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Cesar CAMACHO Quiroz]Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [vacant]National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Gustavo MADERO Munoz]New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA/PANAL [Luis CASTRO Obregon]Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Jesus ZAMBRANO Grijalva]Political pressure groups and leaders:Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCEConfederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEXConfederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMINConfederation of Mexican Workers or CTMConfederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACOCoordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECEFederation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBESNational Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRANational Peasant Confederation or CNCNational Small Business Chamber or CANACOPENational Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTENational Union of Workers or UNTPopular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPORoman Catholic ChurchInternational organization participation:APEC, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-3, G-15, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Eduardo MEDINA MORA Icazachancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006telephone:  (202) 728-1600FAX:  (202) 728-1698consulate(s) general: Anchorage, Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso (TX), Houston, Laredo (TX), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (AZ), Phoenix, Sacramento (CA), San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Saint Paul (MN)consulate(s): Albuquerque, Anchorage (AK), Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit, Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas (NV), Little Rock (AR), McAllen (TX), Midland (TX), New Orleans, Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia, Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Raleigh (NC), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ); note - Washington DC Consular Section located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West VirginiaDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Anthony WAYNEembassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federalmailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000telephone:  (55) 5080-2000FAX:  (55) 5080-2834consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, TijuanaFlag description:three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico Citynote: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of red and green, and does not have anything in its white bandNational symbol(s):golden eagleNational anthem:name: ""Himno Nacional Mexicano"" (National Anthem of Mexico)lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCAnote: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; the anthem is also known as ""Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra"" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completedEconomy ::MexicoEconomy - overview:Mexico has a free market economy in the trillion dollar class. It contains a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution, and airports. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Since the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994, Mexico's share of US imports has increased from 7% to 12%, and its share of Canadian imports has doubled to 5.5%. Mexico has free trade agreements with over 50 countries including Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the European Free Trade Area, and Japan - putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2012 Mexico formally joined the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and in July it formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia and Chile. In 2007, during its first year in office, the Felipe CALDERON administration was able to garner support from the opposition to successfully pass pension and fiscal reforms. The administration passed an energy reform measure in 2008 and another fiscal reform in 2009. Mexico's GDP plunged 6.2% in 2009 as world demand for exports dropped, asset prices tumbled, and remittances and investment declined. GDP posted positive growth of 5.6% in 2010 with exports - particularly to the United States - leading the way. Growth slowed to 3.9% in 2011 and slightly recovered to 4% in 2012. In November 2012, Mexico's legislature passed a comprehensive labor reform which was signed into law by former President Felipe CALDERON. Mexico's new PRI government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, has said it will prioritize structural economic reforms and competitiveness. The new president signed the Pact for Mexico, an agreement that lists 95 priority commitments, along with the leaders of the country's three main political parties: the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the National Action Party (PAN) and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD).GDP (purchasing power parity):$1.788 trillion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 12$1.72 trillion (2011 est.)$1.655 trillion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$1.177 trillion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:3.9% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 863.9% (2011 est.)5.3% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$15,600 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 88$15,100 (2011 est.)$14,700 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:23.9% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 5224.3% of GDP (2011 est.)23.7% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 64.8%government consumption: 11.6%investment in fixed capital: 20.7%investment in inventories: 4%exports of goods and services: 32.9%imports of goods and services: -34%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 4.1%industry: 34.2%services: 61.8% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood productsIndustries:food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourismIndustrial production growth rate:3.6% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 77Labor force:50.64 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 12Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 13.7%industry: 23.4%services: 62.9% (2005)Unemployment rate:5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 455.2% (2011 est.)note: underemployment may be as high as 25%Population below poverty line:51.3%note: based on food-based definition of poverty; asset based poverty amounted to more than 47% (2010 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 1.5%highest 10%: 41.4% (2008)Distribution of family income - Gini index:48.3 (2008)country comparison to the world: 2553.1 (1998)Budget:revenues: $266.9 billionexpenditures: $297.7 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:22.7% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 144Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-2.6% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 102Public debt:35.9% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 10135.3% of GDP (2011 est.)Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):4.1% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1303.4% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:4.5% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 814.5% (31 December 2011 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:4.73% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1594.92% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$175.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 22$148.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$738 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 20$684.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$404.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 30$359.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$408.7 billion (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 22$454.3 billion (31 December 2010)$340.6 billion (31 December 2009)Current account balance:-$11 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 176-$11.07 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$370.9 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 16$349.4 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cottonExports - partners:US 78% (2012)Imports:$370.8 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 15$350.8 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft partsImports - partners:US 50.5%, China 15.5%, Japan 4.8% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$167.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 18$149.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$352.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 31$286.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$315 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 18$302.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$137.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 26$112.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -13.17 (2012 est.)12.423 (2011 est.)12.636 (2010 est.)13.514 (2009)11.016 (2008)Energy ::MexicoElectricity - production:254.4 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 16Electricity - consumption:203.8 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 18Electricity - exports:1.32 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 49Electricity - imports:624.5 million kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 70Electricity - installed generating capacity:59.33 million kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 14Electricity - from fossil fuels:75% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 101Electricity - from nuclear fuels:2.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 27Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:19.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 92Electricity - from other renewable sources:3.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 44Crude oil - production:2.934 million bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 8Crude oil - exports:1.299 million bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 12Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 101Crude oil - proved reserves:12.17 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 18Refined petroleum products - production:1.458 million bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 16Refined petroleum products - consumption:2.133 million bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 12Refined petroleum products - exports:199,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 32Refined petroleum products - imports:496,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 11Natural gas - production:55.1 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 17Natural gas - consumption:59.15 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 14Natural gas - exports:13 million cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 48Natural gas - imports:13.95 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 21Natural gas - proved reserves:490.3 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 31Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:445.3 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 14Communications ::MexicoTelephones - main lines in use:19.684 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 15Telephones - mobile cellular:94.565 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 13Telephone system:general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cabledomestic: despite the opening to competition in January 1997, Telmex remains dominant; Fixed-line teledensity is less than 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 80 per 100 personsinternational: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2011)Broadcast media:many TV stations and more than 1,400 radio stations with most privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available (2012)Internet country code:.mxInternet hosts:16.233 million (2012)country comparison to the world: 9Internet users:31.02 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 12Transportation ::MexicoAirports:1,714 (2013)country comparison to the world: 3Airports - with paved runways:total: 243over 3,047 m: 122,438 to 3,047 m: 321,524 to 2,437 m: 80914 to 1,523 m: 86under 914 m: 33 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 1,471over 3,047 m: 12,438 to 3,047 m: 11,524 to 2,437 m: 42914 to 1,523 m: 281under 914 m:1,146 (2013)Heliports:1 (2013)Pipelines:gas 18,074 km; liquid petroleum 2,102 km; oil 8,775 km; oil/gas/water 369 km; refined products 7,565 km; water 123 km (2013)Railways:total: 17,166 kmcountry comparison to the world: 16standard gauge: 17,166 km 1.435-m gauge (22 km electrified) (2008)Roadways:total: 366,095 kmcountry comparison to the world: 17paved: 132,289 km (includes 6,279 km of expressways)unpaved: 233,806 km (2008)Waterways:2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast) (2012)country comparison to the world: 34Merchant marine:total: 52country comparison to the world: 70by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, chemical tanker 11, liquefied gas 3, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 17, roll on/roll off 3foreign-owned: 5 (France 1, Greece 2, South Africa 1, UAE 1)registered in other countries: 12 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Marshall Islands 2, Panama 5, Portugal 1, Spain 1, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)Ports and terminals:Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Salina Cruz, Veracruzoil terminals: Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminalMilitary ::MexicoMilitary branches:Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM); includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)) (2013)Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 28,815,506females age 16-49: 30,363,558 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 23,239,866females age 16-49: 25,642,549 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 1,105,371female: 1,067,007 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:0.5% of GDP (2012)country comparison to the world: 162Transnational Issues ::MexicoDisputes - international:abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treatyRefugees and internally displaced persons:IDPs: 160,000 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region; drug cartel violence and government's military response since 2007; violence between and within indigenous groups) (2011)stateless persons: 7 (2012)Illicit drugs:major drug-producing and transit nation; world's second largest opium poppy cultivator; opium poppy cultivation in 2009 rose 31% over 2008 to 19,500 hectares yielding a potential production of 50 metric tons of pure heroin, or 125 metric tons of ""black tar"" heroin, the dominant form of Mexican heroin in the western United States; marijuana cultivation increased 45% to 17,500 hectares in 2009; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market (2007)"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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